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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DRAFTING COMMITTEE Uncategorized

DRAFTING COMMITTEE

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 

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ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION : cont.

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES (ARTICLES 51A) 

Initially, it had 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002. 

The fundamental duties noted in the constitution are as follows: 

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India — 

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; 
  1. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; 
  1. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 
  1. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; 
  1. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; 
  1. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; 
  1. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures; 
  1. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; 
  1. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence; 
  1. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; 
  1. Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years. 

ARTICLE 52 TO 151 

  • Article 52 – The President of India 
  • Article 53 – Executive Power of the union 
  • Article 54 – Election of President 
  • Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President 
  • Article 63 – The Vice–president of India 
  • Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States 
  • Article 66 – Election of Vice–president 
  • Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President 
  • Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President 
  • Article 76 – Attorney–General for India 
  • Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament 
  • Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha 
  • Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha 
  • Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament 
  • Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people 
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament 
  • Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills 
  • Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills” 
  • Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget 
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills 
  • Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament 
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court 
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges 
  • Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice 
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges 
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record 
  • Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court 
  • Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court 
  • Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts 
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India 
  • Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG 
  • Article 153 – Governors of State 
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor 
  • Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor 
  • Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State 
  • Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances 
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states 
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be court of record 
  • Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs 
  • Article 233 – Appointment of District judges 
  • Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts 
Categories
ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Uncategorized

ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union. 
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state. 
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states. 
  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. 
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan. 
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship. 
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS( ARTICLE 12 TO 35) 

The constitution of India ORIGINALLY provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property under article 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.  Right to property become  a legal right now under article  300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution. 

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state. 
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. 
  • Article 14 – Equality before the law. 
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. 
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. 
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability. 
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles 

RIGHT TO FREEDOM (ARTICLE 19 TO 22) 

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:     
  1.  Right to freedom of speech and expression  
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms 
  3. Right to form associations or unions 
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India 
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India 
  6. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation,trade and business. 
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences. 
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty. 
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy. 

  • First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India’s states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change. 
  • Second Schedule – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the comptroller and auditor general. 
  • Third Schedule – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges. 
  • Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory. 
  • Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection). 
  • Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. 
  • Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities 
  • Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages 
  • Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations 
  • Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures. 
  • Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government) 
  • Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government) 

Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts: 

  • Part I – States and union territories 
  • Part II – Citizenship 
  • Part III – Fundamental Rights 
  • Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy 
  • Part IVA – Fundamental Duties 
  • Part V   –   The Union 
  • Part VI   – The States 
  • Part VII   – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)     
  • Part VIII   – Union territories 
  • Part IX    – Panchayats   
  • Part IXA – Municipalities 
  • Part IXB – Co-operative societies 
  • Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas 
  • Part XI – Relations between the union and the states 
  • Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits 
  • Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India 
  • Part XIV – Services under the union and states 
  • Part XIV A – Tribunals 
  • Part XV – Elections 
  • Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes 
  • Part XVII – Languages 
  • Part XVIII – Emergency provisions 
  • Part XIX – Miscellaneous 
  • Part XX – Amending the constitution 
  • Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions 
  • Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA structure of indian constitution

STRUCTURE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation. At its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is the second largest active constitution in the world. (largest active constitution- constitution of Alabama). 

The constitution has a preamble and 448 articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules and 5 appendices, it has been amended  103 times; the latest amendment became effective on 14 January 2019. 

Categories
BORROWED CONCEPTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

BORROWED CONCEPTS

  1. UNITED KINGDOM 
  • Parliamentary government 
  • Concept of single citizenship 
  • Rule of law 
  • The legislative speaker and their role 
  • Legislative procedure 
  1. UNITED STATES 
  • Bill of Rights 
  • Federal structure of government 
  • Electoral College 
  • Independent judiciary and separation of powers 
  • Judicial review 
  • President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces 
  • Equal protection under law 
  1. IRELAND 

Directive principles of state policy 

  1. AUSTRALIA 
  • Freedom of trade between states 
  • National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction 
  • Concurrent List 
  • Preamble terminology 
  1. FRANCE 

Ideals of Liberty ,equality and fraternity 

  1. CANADA 
  • Quasi-federal government — a federal system with a strong central government 
  • Distribution of powers between the central and state governments 
  • Residual powers, retained by the central government 

7. SOVIET UNION

  • Fundamental Duties under article 51-A 
  • Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development 

8. Other constitutions 

  • The emergency provision under article 356 (from the  Wiemar Constitution) 
  • Amending the constitution (from South Africa) 
  • Due process (from  Japan) 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

COMMITTEES OF THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY

The Constituent Assembly appointed a total of 22 committees to deal with different tasks of constitution-making. Out of these, eight were major committees and the others were minor committees. 

MAJOR COMMITTEES

  1. Drafting Committee – B. R. Ambedkar 
  1. Union Power Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Union Constitution Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Provincial Constitution Committee – Vallabhbhai Patel 
  1. Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas – Vallabhbhai Patel. This committee had the following subcommittees: 
  • Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee – J. B. Kripalani 
  • Minorities Sub-Committee – Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, 
  • North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee – Gopinath Bordoloi 
  • Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee – A V Thakkar 
  1. Rules of Procedure Committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States) – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Steering Committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. National flag ad hoc committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. Committee for the function of the consistution assembley – G V Mavlankar 
  1. House committee – B Pattabhi Sitaramayya 
  1. Language committee – Moturi Satyanarayana 
  1. Order of business committee – K M Munshi 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ORGANIZATION

Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first chairman (temporary) of Constituent Assembly. Later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president and Its vice-president was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee. Jurist B. N. Rau was appointed constitutional adviser to the assembly; Rau prepared the original draft of the constitution. 

The assembly’s work had five stages: 

  • Committees presented reports on issues. 
  • B.N. Rau prepared an initial draft based on the reports and his research into the constitutions of other nations. 
  • The drafting committee, chaired by B. R. Ambedkar, presented a detailed draft constitution which was published for public discussion. 
  • The draft constitution was discussed, and amendments proposed and enacted. 
  • The constitution was adopted, with a committee of experts led by the Congress Party (known as the Congress Assembly Party) played a pivotal role. 

 

Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Timeline of formation of the Constitution of India

  • 6 December 1946: 

 Formation of the Constitution Assembly. 

  • 9 December 1946:  

The first meeting was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House). (207 members attended) 

The 1st person to address was J. B. Kripalani, Sachchidananda Sinha became temporary president.  

  • 11 December 1946:      

The Assembly appointed Rajendra Prasad as its president, H. C. Mukherjee as its vice-chairman and B. N. Rau as constitutional legal adviser. (There were initially 389 members in total, which declined to 299 after partition. Out of the 389 members, 292 were from government provinces, 4 from chief commissioner provinces and 93 from princely states.) 

  • 13 December 1946:         

An ‘Objective Resolution’ was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru. This later became the Preamble of the Constitution. 

  • 22 January 1947:    

Objective resolution unanimously adopted. 

  • 22 July 1947:  

National flag adopted. 

  • 15 August 1947:  

Achieved independence. India split into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. 

  • 29 August 1947:  

Drafting Committee appointed with B. R. Ambedkar as its Chairman. The other 6 members of committee were Munshi, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan and Mitter. 

  • 16 July 1948:  

Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly. 

  • 26 November 1949:  

The Constitution of India was passed and adopted by the assembly. 

  • 24 January 1950:  

Last meeting of Constituent Assembly. The Constitution was signed and accepted. (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, 22 Parts) 

  • 26 January 1950:  

The Constitution came into force. (The process took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days) 

G. V. Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament) after India turned into a republic.