Five-Year Plans of India – 4th and 5th five year plan

Fourth Plan (1969–1974)

At this time Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. The Indira Gandhi government nationalized 14 major Indian banks and the Green Revolution in India advanced agriculture. In addition, the situation in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) was becoming dire as the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War took funds earmarked for industrial development. India also performed the Smiling Buddha underground nuclear test (Pokhran-1) in Rajasthan on May 18,1974, partially in response to the United States deployment of the Seventh Fleet in the Bay of Bengal. The fleet had been deployed to warn India against attacking West Pakistan and extending the war.

The target growth rate was 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 3.3%.

Fifth Plan (1974–1978)

The Fifth Five-Year Plan laid stress on employment, poverty alleviation (Garibi Hatao), and justice. The plan also focused on self-reliance in agricultural production and defense. In 1978 the newly elected Morarji Desai government rejected the plan. The Electricity Supply Act was amended in 1975, which enabled the central government to enter into power generation and transmission.

The Indian national highway system was introduced and many roads were widened to accommodate the increasing traffic. Tourism also expanded. The twenty-point programme was launched in 1975. It was followed from 1974 to 1979.

The target growth rate was 4.4% and the actual growth rate was 5%.

Rolling Plan (1978–1980)


The Janata Party government rejected the Fifth Five-Year Plan and introduced a new Sixth Five-Year Plan (1978–1980). This plan was again rejected by the Indian National Congress government in 1980 and a new Sixth Plan was made.The Rolling Plan consists of three kind of plans that were proposed. The First Plan is for the present year which comprises the annual budget and Second is a plan for a fixed number of years, which may be 3, 4 or 5 years. Plan number two is kept changing as per the requirements of the Indian economy. The Third Plan is a perspective plan which is for long terms i.e. for 10, 15 or 20 years. Hence there is no fixation of dates in for the commencement and termination of the plan in the rolling plans. The main advantage of the rolling plans is that they are flexible and are able to overcome the rigidity of fixed five year plans by mending targets,the object of the exercise, projections and allocations as per the changing conditions in the country’s economy. The main disadvantage of this plan is that if the targets are revised each year, it becomes very difficult to achieve them which are laid down in the five-year period and it turned out to be a complex plan. Frequent revisions make them resulted in instability of the economy which are essential for its balanced development and progress.