The 31st Amendment Act, 1973—It increases the upper limit of representation of the States to the Lok Sabha from 500 to 525 and decreases the existing limit for Union Territories from 25 to 20.
The 34th Amendment Act, 1974—It seeks to extend protection to the ‘State’s’ land ceiling laws and land tenure reforms from litigation.
The 36th Amendment Act, 1975—By this Act Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.
The 37th Amendment Bill, 1975—Was passed by the Parliament on April 26, 1975, to provide for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers for Arunachal Pradesh.
The 38th Amendment Act, 1975—By this Act, President’s ‘satisfaction’ in declaring emergency has been made non justiciable.
The 39th Amendment Act, 1975—The Act provides that disputes relating to the election of the President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker shall be determined by a forum to be determined by Parliamentary law which shall not be called in question in any court.
The 40th Amendment Act, 1976—This amendment extends the scope of Article 277 relating to the territorial waters to include sovereignty over the Exclusive Economic Zone and to enlarge the list of entries in the Ninth Schedule to give protection to 64 State and Central laws, mostly pertaining to land reforms.
The 41st Amendment Act, 1976—It raises the age of retirement of the chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission from 60 to 62.
The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976—The Act introduced comprehensive changes in the Constitution, some of which are as follows—
(i) Provision of Fundamental Duties,
(ii) Directive Principles made justiceable and given precedence over Fundamental Rights,
(iii) Division of jurisdiction between the Supreme Court and the High Courts in the matter of determination of the constitutional validity of Central and State laws,
(iv) Limitation of the jurisdiction of High Courts in certain respects,
(v) Provision for creation of Administrative Tribunals for adjudication for service matters,
(vi) Inclusion of Education and certain other subjects in the Concurrent List,
(vii) Provision for dealing with antinational and communal activities,
(viii) Provision for amending Article 368 of the Constitution to give emphasis on the mutability of the Constitution and every part thereof.
The 43rd Amendment Act, 1978—The President gave assent to the Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, on April 13, 1978 which repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the emergency.
The Act seeks to restore civil liberties by deleting Article 31D which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of anti-national activities.
The new law also restores legislative powers to the States to make appropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent with Fundamental Rights.
The Judiciary has also been restored to its rightful place. The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate State laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also be able to go into the question of Constitutional validity of Central Laws, a power taken away be the 42nd Amendment Act.
The 44th Amendment Act, 1979—This Amendment, reverses many of the provisions of the 42nd Amendment and also makes far reaching changes in many of the provisions of the Constitution, the chief of which are as follows :
The Right to Property has been deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights. It has now become as ordinary legal right.
The Amendment provides for safeguards against misuse of executive powers and indiscriminate imposition of Emergency. To ensure that Emergency powers are properly exercised the Amendment provides a number of safeguards.
The Act provides that the fundamental right to life and liberty cannot be demolished even during the operation of Emergency.
Another important provision of the amendment is Article 361-A. The right of information media, especially the press has been guaranteed to report freely and without censorship the proceedings in Parliament and State Legislatures.
The term of Parliament and State Legislatures has been reduced from six to five years. It may be remembered that term of Parliament and the State Legislatures was raised from 5 to 6 years by the 42 Amendment Act. In this way the pre 42nd Amendment position has been restored.
According to another provision, a law for preventive detention cannot authorize, in any case, detention for a longer period than two months, unless an advisory board has reported that there is sufficient cause for such detention.
The Presidential proclamation regarding the break down of constitutional machinery in a state issued under Article 356 would be in force only for a period of six months in the first instance. It cannot, however, exceed one year ordinarily.
The 45th Amendment, 1980—The President on April 14, 1980 gave assent to the 45th Constitution (Amendment) Bill which extends reservation for scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies, representation of Anglo-Indian by nomination for a further period of 10 years.
The 49th Amendment Act, 1985—The aim of the amendment (of Article 356) was to enable the central Government to extend President’s rule in Punjab, if necessary, for a period of one year beyond Oct. 5, 1985. Under the Constitutional provisions, President’s rule cannot be continued for more than one year at a time.
The 52nd Amendment Act, 1985—The Act has made defection to another party, after elections, illegal. Any member defecting to another party after elections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State legislature.
The 53rd Amendment Act, 1986—The Act grants Statehood to the Union Territory of Mizoram, thus making it the 23rd State of the Indian Unions.
The 54th Amendment Act, 1986—The Act revised the salary scales of Supreme Court and High Court Judges. According to the provisions of the Act the salary of the Chief Justice of India was raised to Rs. 10‚000 per month, that of other Judges of the Supreme Court and the Chief Justices of High Courts to Rs. 9‚000 and that of other Judges of High Courts to Rs. 8‚000 per month.
The 55th Amendment Act, 1986 and the State of Arunachal Pradesh Bill, 1986—The Bill vests special powers in the Government besides stipulating that the new State Assembly shall consist of not less than 30 members. The second provides for the establishment of the new State of Arunachal Pradesh. The Bill has already become an Act.
The 56th Amendment Act, 1987—This amendment gave statehood to Goa, Goa now becomes the 25th State of India. Daman and Diu remain a separate Union Territory.
The 57th Amendment Act, 1987—This Bill provides for reservation in the legislative assemblies of 4 North-Eastern States.
The 58th Amendment Act, 1987—Hindi Version of the Constitution accepted officially.
The 59th Amendment Act, 1988—This Bill provides for the imposition of Emergency in Punjab due to internal disturbances and extension of President’s Rule upto a maximum of three years.
The 60th Amendment Act, 1988—The state governments have been empowered under this Act to increase the professional tax from Rs. 250 to Rs. 2500 per annum.
The 61st Amendment Act, 1989—Voting age is reduced from 21 years to 18 years.
The 62nd Amendment Act, 1989—The 9th Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha passed this Bill in Dec. 1989. It proposes to secure reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for another period of 10 years. After this Bill became an Act.
The 63rd Amendment Act, 1989—Repealed Amendment 59 empowering government to impose emergency in Punjab.
The 64th Amendment Act, 1990—The Act extends President’s rule in Punjab for six months from May 11, 1990. This Act was introduced as 65th Amendment Bill.
The 65th Amendment Act, 1990—The Act provided statutory status to the commission for Scheduled Castes and Tribes.
The 66th Amendment Act, 1990—This Act added more Land Reforms Acts in the Ninth Schedule to the constitution after entry 202.
The 67th Amendment Act, 1991—Was introduced and passed by the Parliament on Oct. 4, 1990. It extends President’s rule in Punjab for 6 months from Nov. 11, 1990.
The 68th Amendment Act, 1991—Was introduced as 75th Amendment Bill. It extended President’s rule in Punjab for one year, i.e. upto a total period of five years (from May 11, 1987 to May 1, 1992).
The 69th Amendment Act, 1991—The name of Union Territory changed to National Capital Area. It will have 70 member Assembly.
The 70th Amendment Act, 1992—Members of Pondicherry Assembly and members of the proposed Assembly of Delhi given right to elect the President.
The 71st Amendment Act, 1992—Nepalese, Konkani and Manipuri added to the Eight scheduled (Languages) as recognised languages in the constitution.
The 72nd Amendment Act, 1992—For restoring peace and harmony in the areas of the State of Tripura where disturbed conditions prevailed, a Memorandum of settlement was signed by the Government of India with Tripura National Volunteers on August 12, 1988.
The 73rd Amendment Act, 1992—It is concerning Panchayati Raj.
The 74th Amendment Act, 1992—It is regarding Municipal Boards and Corporations.
The 77th Amendment Act, 1993—Regarding establishment of Tribunals to decide tenancy disputes between tenants and house owners.
The 78th Amendment Act, 1995—Land Reforms of Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and W. Bengal included in 9th schedule of the Constitution.
The 79th Amendment Act, 1999—It extends reservation of seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for SCs and STs for another 10 years beyond 2000. The President gave his assent on Jan. 24, 2000.
The 80th Amendment Act, 2000—Relates to the revenue sharing between the Centre and the States whereby States’ overall share was increased to 29% as per the Tenth Finance Commission’s recommendation.
The 81st Amendment Act, 2000—Relates to carrying forward backlog vacancies of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
The 82nd Amendment Act, 2000—Relates to relaxation in qualifying marks and reservation of posts in super speciality courses in Medical and Engineering disciplines, etc. for Scheduled Castes / Tribes etc. (Both 81st and 82nd amendments were made in supersession of Supreme Court’s judgements).
The 83rd Amendment Act, 2000—Relates to the reservation of seats under Panchayati Raj in Arunachal Pradesh.
The 84th Amendment Act, 2001—The Act amended provisos to Articles 82 and 170 (3) of the constitution to readjust and rationalise the territorial constituencies in the States, without altering the number of seats allotted to each State in the House of People and Legislative Assemblies of the States, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes constituencies, on the basis of the population ascertained at the census for the year 1991 so as to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population/electorate in different constituencies.
Note—By a later amendment the year 1991 has been substituted by the year 2001.
The 85th Amendment Act, 2001-02—It provides for the benefit of reservation in promotions in government jobs to the members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
The 86th Amendment Act, 2002—It makes school education as a fundamental right for all children between the ages 6–14. It inserts a new article 21A, after article 21, which provides that State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. Also, it directs the state in article 45 to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.
The 87th Amendment Act, 2003—It substitutes the figures ‘2001’ for the figures ‘1991’ in articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.
The 88th Amendment Act, 2003—It makes minor amendments in articles 268, 269 and 270 and in the Seventh Schedule to the constitution, in list-1 union list, after entry 92B, the following entry shall be inserted namely : “92 C Taxes on services.”
The 89th Amendment Act, 2003—It amends article 338 and inserts new article 338A. Thereby providing for separate National Commissions for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes.
The 90th Amendment Act, 2003—In this amendment, in article 332 of the constitution, in clause (6), the following provision shall be inserted, namely —
“Provided that for elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State of Assam, the representation of the Scheduled Tribes and nonscheduled tribes in the constituencies included in the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, so notified and existing prior to the constitutions of Bodoland Territorial Areas District, shall be maintained.
The 91st Amendment Act, 2003—This amendment limits the size of the Council of Minister both at the Centre and the States to 15 per cent of the strength of the legislature with the maximum number 12 in smaller states, where the strength of the legislature is 40. The Act also debars the defectors from holding any office of profit under the government for the rest of the duration of the legislature or until reelection which is earlier, besides terminating their seats in the Lok Sabha or the Legislature Assembly as the case may be.
The 92nd Amendment Act, 2003—This amendment has added three more languages in the 8th schedule of the constitution raising the number of the languages to 22. Those languages are : Maithili, Dogri, Bodo and Santhali.
The 93rd Amendment Act—It provides for reservation in admissions in unaided private educational institutions for students belonging to Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes. The concerned Bill was passed by Parliament in December 2005. The President gave his assent to the Bill in February 2006.
The 94th Amendment Act—The President has given his assent to the Constitution (Ninety-Fourth Amendment) Bill, 2006 as passed by Parliament. The legislation excludes Bihar from the provision of clause (1) of Article 164 of the Constitution which provides that there shall be a Minister in charge of Tribal welfare who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. It also proposes to extend the provision of clause (1) of Article 164 to the newly formed states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.