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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DRAFTING COMMITTEE Uncategorized

DRAFTING COMMITTEE

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS GEOGRAPHY Uncategorized

INDIAN CITIES ON RIVERBANK

CITY RIVER STATE 
AGRA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
AHMEDABAD SABARMATI GUJRAT 
ALLAHABAD AT THE CONFLUENCE OF GANGA, YAMUNA AND SARASWATI  UTTAR PRADESH 
AYODHYA SARAYU UTTAR PRADESH 
BADRINATH ALAKANANDA UTTARAKHAND 
CUTTACK MAHANADI ODISHA 
BHAGALPUR GANGES BIHAR 
KOLKATA HOOGLY WEST BENGAL 
NEW DELHI YAMUNA DELHI 
DIBRUGARH BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
FEROZPUR SUTLEJ PUNJAB 
GUWAHATI BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
HARIDWAR GANGES UTTARAKHAND 
HYDERABAD MUSI TELUNGANA 
JABALPUR NARMADA MADHYA PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTER PRADESH 
KOTA CHAMBAL RAJASTHAN 
JAMMU TAWI JAMMU&KASHMIR 
PATNA GANGES BIHAR 
RAJMUNDRI GODAVARI ANDRA PRADESH 
SRINAGAR JHELUM JAMMU&KASHMIR 
SURAT TAPI GUJRAT 
VARANASI GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
VIJAYAWADA KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
VADODARA VISHWAMITRI GUJRAT 
MATHURA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
BANGALORE VRISHABHADRI KARNATAKA 
KANNAUJ GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
MANGALORE NETRAVATI KARNATAKA 
SHIMOGA TUNGA RIVER KARNATAKA 
BHADRAVATI BHADRA KARNATAKA 
GWALIOR CHAMBAL MADHYA PRADESH 
GORAKPUR RAPTI UTTAR PRADESH 
LUCKNOW GOMTI UTTAR PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
SMBALPUR MAHANADI ODISHA 
ROURKELA BRAHMANI ODISHA 
MADURAI VAIGAI  TAMIL NADU 
THIRUCHIRAPALLI KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
ERODE KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
TIRUNELVELI THAMIRA BARANI TAMIL NADU 
NASHIK GODAVARI MAHARASHTRA 
HAJIPUR GANGES BIHAR 
UJJAIN SHIPRA MADHYA PRADESH 
AMARAVATI KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
THANJAVUR VENNAARU TAMIL NADU 
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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS GEOGRAPHY Uncategorized

LIST OF COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND THEIR CURRENCIES

COUNTRY CAPITAL CURRENCY 
Afghanistan Kabul Afghani 
Albania Tirane Lek 
Algeria Algiers Dinar 
Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro 
Angola Luanda New Kwanza 
Antigua and Barbuda Saint John’s East Caribbean dollar 
Argentina Buenos Aires Peso 
Armenia Yerevan Dram 
Australia Canberra Australian dollar 
Austria Vienna Euro  
Azerbaijan Baku Manat 
The Bahamas Nassau Bahamian dollar 
Bahrain Manama Bahrain dinar 
Bangladesh Dhaka Taka 
Barbados Bridgetown Barbados dollar 
Belarus Minsk Belorussian ruble 
Belgium Brussels Euro  
Belize Belmopan Belize dollar 
Benin Porto-Novo CFA Franc 
Bhutan Thimphu Ngultrum 
Bolivia La Paz (administrative); Sucre (judicial) Boliviano 
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Marka 
Botswana Gaborone Pula 
Brazil Brasilia Real 
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar 
Bulgaria Sofia Lev 
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou CFA Franc 
Burundi Bujumbura Burundi franc 
Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel 
Cameroon Yaounde CFA Franc 
Canada Ottawa Canadian dollar 
Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean escudo 
Central African Republic Bangui CFA Franc 
Chad N’Djamena CFA Franc 
Chile Santiago Chilean Peso 
China Beijing Yuan/Renminbi 
Colombia Bogota Colombian Peso 
Comoros Moroni Franc 
Congo, Republic of the Brazzaville CFA Franc 
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Kinshasa Congolese franc 
Costa Rica San Jose Colón 
Cote d’Ivoire Yamoussoukro (official); Abidjan (de facto) CFA Franc 
Croatia Zagreb Kuna 
Cuba Havana Cuban Peso 
Cyprus Nicosia Cyprus pound 
Czech Republic Prague Koruna 
Denmark Copenhagen Krone 
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti franc 
Dominica Roseau East Caribbean dollar 
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Dominican Peso 
East Timor  Dili U.S. dollar 
Ecuador Quito U.S. dollar 
Egypt Cairo Egyptian pound 
El Salvador San Salvador Colón; U.S. dollar 
Equatorial Guinea Malabo CFA Franc 
Eritrea Asmara Nakfa 
Estonia Tallinn Kroon 
Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr 
Fiji Suva Fiji dollar 
Finland Helsinki Euro  
France Paris Euro  
Gabon Libreville CFA Franc 
The Gambia Banjul Dalasi 
Georgia Tbilisi Lari 
Germany Berlin Euro  
Ghana Accra Cedi 
Greece Athens Euro  
Grenada Saint George’s East Caribbean dollar 
Guatemala Guatemala City Quetzal 
Guinea Conakry Guinean franc 
Guinea-Bissau Bissau CFA Franc 
Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar 
Haiti Port-au-Prince Gourde 
Honduras Tegucigalpa Lempira 
Hungary Budapest Forint 
Iceland Reykjavik Icelandic króna 
India New Delhi Rupee 
Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah 
Iran Tehran Rial 
Iraq Baghdad Iraqi Dinar 
Ireland Dublin Euro 
Israel Jerusalem Shekel 
Italy Rome Euro  
Jamaica Kingston Jamaican dollar 
Japan Tokyo Yen 
Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar 
Kazakhstan Nursultan Tenge 
Kenya Nairobi Kenya shilling 
Kiribati Tarawa Atoll Australian dollar 
Korea, North Pyongyang Won 
Korea, South Seoul Won 
Kosovo Pristina Euro  
Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar 
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som 
Laos Vientiane New Kip 
Latvia Riga Lats 
Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound 
Lesotho Maseru Maluti 
Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar 
Libya Tripoli Libyan dinar 
Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc 
Lithuania Vilnius Litas 
Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro  
Macedonia Skopje Denar 
Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy franc 
Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha 
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Ringgit 
Maldives Male Rufiya 
Mali Bamako CFA Franc 
Malta Valletta Maltese lira 
Marshall Islands Majuro U.S. Dollar 
Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya 
Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee 
Mexico Mexico City Mexican peso 
Micronesia, Federated States of Palikir U.S. Dollar 
Moldova Chisinau Leu 
Monaco Monaco Euro 
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tugrik 
Montenegro Podgorica Euro 
Morocco Rabat Dirham 
Mozambique Maputo Metical 
Myanmar (Burma) Rangoon ; Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (administrative) Kyat 
Categories
ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Uncategorized

ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union. 
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state. 
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states. 
  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. 
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan. 
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship. 
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS( ARTICLE 12 TO 35) 

The constitution of India ORIGINALLY provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property under article 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.  Right to property become  a legal right now under article  300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution. 

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state. 
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. 
  • Article 14 – Equality before the law. 
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. 
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. 
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability. 
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles 

RIGHT TO FREEDOM (ARTICLE 19 TO 22) 

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:     
  1.  Right to freedom of speech and expression  
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms 
  3. Right to form associations or unions 
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India 
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India 
  6. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation,trade and business. 
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences. 
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty. 
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 
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