The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).
Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. This sultanate also is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, during the Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of Indian subcontinent. The sultanate declined thereafter, with continuing Hindu-Muslim wars, and states such as Vijayanagara Empire asserting their independence as well as new Muslim sultanates such as Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples of enemy states as was the tradition in Pre-Islamic India, as well as led to the emergence of Indo-Islamic architecture. In 1526, it fell and was replaced by the Mughal Empire.
|Languages||Persian (official), Hindavi (since 1451)|
|•||1517–1526||Ibrahim Lodi (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|•||Independence||12 June 1206|
|•||Battle of Amroha||20 December 1305|
|•||Battle of Panipat||21 April 1526|
|Today part of||Afghanistan