DELHI SULTANATE

 

 

The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).  Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. This sultanate also is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240.

The Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, during the Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of Indian subcontinent. The sultanate declined thereafter, with continuing Hindu-Muslim wars, and states such as Vijayanagara Empire asserting their independence as well as new Muslim sultanates such as Bengal Sultanate breaking off.

The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples of enemy states as was the tradition in Pre-Islamic India, as well as led to the emergence of Indo-Islamic architecture. In 1526, it fell and was replaced by the Mughal Empire.

Delhi Sultanate
1206–1526
 
Capital Delhi (1206–1210)
Badayun (1210–1214)
Delhi (1214–1327)
Daulatabad (1327–1334)
Delhi (1334–1506)
Agra (1506–1526)
Languages Persian (official), Hindavi (since 1451)
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan
 • 1206–1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak(first)
 • 1517–1526 Ibrahim Lodi (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 • Independence 12 June 1206
 • Battle of Amroha 20 December 1305
 • Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526
Today part of Afghanistan
Bangladesh
India
Pakistan

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