Q. What is the difference between FIFO and the memory?

FIFO (first in first out) is a memory structure where data’s can be stored and retrieved. This is a queue where memory is a storage device which can hold data’s dynamically or at any desired locations and can be retrieved in any order.

Q. What is an anti-aliasing filter?

Anti-aliasing filter reduces errors due to aliasing.

Q. How to implement a fourth order Butter worth LP filter at 1 KHz if sampling frequency is 8 KHz?

A fourth order butter worth filter can be made as cascade of two second order LP filters with zeta of 0.924 and 0.383. One can use a bilinear transformation approach for realising second order LP filters. Using this technique described well in many texts, one can make second order LP filters and cascade them

Q. Is 8085 an embedded system?

It’s not an embedded system. B’coz it will be a part of an embedded system and it does not work on any software.

 Q. .What is the role of segment register?

In the 8086 processor architecture, memory addresses are specified in two parts called the segment and the offset. Segment values are stored in the segment registers. There are four or more segment registers: Code Segment (CS) contains segment of the current instruction (IP is the offset), Stack segment (SS) contain stack of the segment (SP is the offset), DS is the segment used by default for most data operations; ES is an extra segment register.

Q.What type of registers contains an INTEL CPU?

Special function registers like accumulator, program controller (PC), data pointer (DPTR), TMOD and TCON (timing registers), 3 register banks with r0 to r7, Bit addressable registers like B.

 Q. What is the difference between microprocessor and micro controller?

Microprocessor is managers of the resources (I/O, memory) which lie out-side of its architecture.

Micro controllers have I/O, memory etc. built into it and specifically designed for control.

Q. DMA deals with which address (physical/virtual addresses)?

DMA deals with physical addresses. DMA controller is a device which directly drives the data and address bus during data transfer. So it is purely physical address.

 Q. What is Dirac delta function and its Fourier transform and its importance?

Dirac delta function is a continuous time function with unit are and infinite amplitude at t=0.

The Fourier transform of Dirac delta function is 1.

Using Dirac delta as an input to the system, we can get the system response. It is used to study the behaviour of the circuit. We can use this system behaviour to find the output for any input.

Q. What is the difference between testing and verification?

Verification is a front end process and testing is a post silicon process. Verification is to verify the functionality of the design during the design cycle. Testing is find manufacturing faults.

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