Pandit Karuppan was a poet, dramatist, and social reformer who lived in Kerala, India.  Pandit Karuppan emerged from Ernakulam of Cochin State as a relentless crusader against untouchability and social evils. He was called the “Lincoln” of Kerala for steering socio-economically and educationally backward communities to the forefront. Hailing from a community of inland fishermen who engaged in localised fishing in backwaters and rivers, Karuppan became a Sanskrit scholar, poet and dramatist of repute. As the first human rights activist of the Cochin State, he used his literary skill and organizational ability to combat illiteracy, social injustice, casteism, and superstitions. He campaigned for the rights of lower-caste people, who at that time were not even permitted to enter Ernakulam.

K.P. Karuppan (Kandathiparambil Paapu Karuppan) was born on 24 May 1885, at Cheranelloor, near Ernakulam into a lower middle class family of Dheevara fishermen community to Paapu (locally known as Atho Poojari) and Kochu Pennu. the family was known for its skills in toxicology and for treating snakebite victims.

The Malayalam meaning of Karuppan is “person of black colour,” but, ironically, Karuppan had a very fair complexion. Though Karuppan’s childhood name was Sankaran, the name Karuppan was given to him by a Tamil Gosai who was a family friend. He predicted that the boy would become a great scholar and suggested the name Karpan (meaning a learned person in Tamil), which later turned into Karuppan.

Karuppan’s formal education began at the age of five under Azheekkal Velu Vaidyan, a relative. Subsequently, Vadakke Valath Appu Asan, a local guru, taught him Amarakosham, Sidhdharoopam and Sreeramodantham, the basics of Sanskrit. A prolific reader, Karuppan also read the Itihasas and Puranas. His first poem was Sthothramandaaram. The prodigy took his gurus by surprise when he wrote Lankamardanam at the age of 12 with slokas styled in Shardoolavikreeditham.

Karuppan studied Sanskrit Kavyas under Mangalappillil Krishnan Asan of Cherai and returned to Cheranelloor to study with Annamanada Rama Pothuval. There, as was the prevailing custom, upper-caste Hindu students did not allow him to sit along with them and hence he sat alone in a corner. He studied the Kavyas Makham and Nyshadham and Bhoja Chambu from Rama Pothuval. The most significant period of his education was at Kodungalloor. The Kodungallur Kovilakam was a place of learning, due to the resident luminaries.

Karuppan’s famous work Jathikummi, which criticised the prevailing caste system, was written in 1904 during the period of his study at Kodungallur Kovilakam and it became popular among the poor. Jaathikkummi is a pioneering attempt in Malayalam literature questioning the caste system and untouchability.

Karuppan decided to quit his teaching job to spend more time and energy spearheading social reforms. With this purpose, he organised the people of his own community into regional groups called sabhās. The main agenda of the sabhās was to persuade people to fight ignorance and superstitions. He put strong pressure on his fellow countrymen to become better educated and accept a healthier lifestyle. He organised the first Sabhā, Kalyanadayini Sabhā, at Anapuzha, Kodungalloor. Another Sabhā was Sudharma Sooryodaya Sabhā (Thevara), Prabodha Chandrodayam Sabhā (North Paravur), Araya Vamsodharani Sabhā (Engandiyoor), and Sanmarga Pradeepa Sabhā (Kumbalam) are other sabhās that Pandit Karuppan patronised. All these sabhas aimed to achieve the upliftment of the subaltern dalit castes.

Pandit Karuppan was a social reformer, a dramatist, an academician, and a poet. He hailed from the Ernakulam district of Kerala. Most of his time was devoted to the betterment of the discriminated communities of the region. Karuppan was vehemently against the existence of superstitions and other wrong communal practices. For this purpose, he organized the meetings and told the people about the importance of having an education and a decent living in the society. When he became the member of the Cochin Legislative Assembly, he brought to the notice of the authorities the plight of the oppressed classes in the society. Due to a series of presentations, the Cochin government had to act and bring some landmark legislations to improve the conditions of the members of the backward classes.


1. The house were Pandit Karuppan lived in ?

Answer : Sahitya Kudeeram (Ernakulam)


2. Pandit Karuppan belongs to which community?

Answer : Dheevara (Fisherman)


3. The first guru of Karuppan?

Answer : Azheekal Velu Vaidyan


4. Who is the leader of Kayal Sammelanam?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


5.  The year which Pandit Karuppan was appointed as the member of Cochin Legislative Assembly ?

Answer : 1925


6. Major works of Pandit karuppan?

Answer :

a. Lankamardanam

b. Jathikkummi

c. Balakalesham

d. Sree Budhaa

e. Panchavadi

f. Araya Prasasthi

g. Kairalee Kouthukam

h. Kavyapedakam

i. Kaliyamardanam

j. Acharabhooshanam

k. Bhaasha Bhaimee Parinayam

l.Dheevara Tharuniyuda Vilapam

m. Udyanavirunnu

n. Mahasamadhi

o. Mangalamala

p. Chithralekha

q. Edward Vijayam

r. Soudamini

s. Sangeetha Naishadham

t. Sakunthalam Vanchipattu


v. Rajaraja Parvam

w. Sthothramandaram


7. The first poem of Pandit karuppan?

Answer : Sthothramandaram


8. The first book in Malayalam literature questioning the caste system and untouchability?

Answer : Jathikummi


9. The book written by Pandit karuppan to generate awareness against Superstitions?

Answer : Acharabhooshanam


10. The first Sabha was founded by Pandit Karuppan?

Answer : Kalyanadayini Sabha


11. Founder of Prabodha Chandrodaya Sabha?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


12. Founder of Sanmarga Pradeepa Sabha?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


13. Founder of Vala Samudaya Parishkarini Sabha?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


14. Founder of Araya Samajam?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


15. Founder of Cochin Pulaya Maha Sabha?

Answer : Pandit karuppan and K.P.Vellon


16. Founder of Araya Vamsha Dharani Sabha?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


17. Founder of Jnanodayam Sabha?

Answer : Pandit Karuppan


18. Who is known as “Lincoln of Kerala”?

Answer : Pandit K.P.karuppan

19. The title kavithilakan (Great Poet) was given to Pandit karuppan by?

Answer : Maharaja of Cochin


20. The title Sahitya Nipuna was given to Pandit karuppan by?

Answer : Maharaja of Cochin

21. The title Vidwan was given to Pandit karuppan by?

Answer : Kerala Varma Valiyakoi Thampuran


22. Pandit K.P.Karuppan died on?

Answer : 23 March 1938 (Pleurisy disease)


23. Pandit Karuppan monument is situated at?

Answer : Cheranelloor


24. Pandit karuppan Smaraka Grammena Vayanasala(1953)Situated in?

Answer : Cheranelloor


25. Founder of Pandit karuppan Smaraka Grammena Vayanasala?

Answer : A.K.Velappan


26. Winner of Pandit karuppan prize 2015?

Answer : Swami Chidananda Puri


27. The book Pandit Karuppan Jeevithavum Porattavum written by?

Answer : Gopinath panangad


28. The book Pandit Karuppan (Malayalam) written by?
Answer : Rajesh K Erumeli

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