Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 



Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first chairman (temporary) of Constituent Assembly. Later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president and Its vice-president was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee. Jurist B. N. Rau was appointed constitutional adviser to the assembly; Rau prepared the original draft of the constitution. 

The assembly’s work had five stages: 

  • Committees presented reports on issues. 
  • B.N. Rau prepared an initial draft based on the reports and his research into the constitutions of other nations. 
  • The drafting committee, chaired by B. R. Ambedkar, presented a detailed draft constitution which was published for public discussion. 
  • The draft constitution was discussed, and amendments proposed and enacted. 
  • The constitution was adopted, with a committee of experts led by the Congress Party (known as the Congress Assembly Party) played a pivotal role. 





The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. 

The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the fundamental duties of citizens.  

It is the longest written constitution in the world. 

B.R Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is  its chief architect. 

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly Of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. 

The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. 

India celebrates its constitution on 26 January 1950 as Republic Day. 

The constitution declares India a soverign,socialist,secular,democratic republic assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty and endeavours to promote fraternity.

The words “secular” and “socialist” were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency.


An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M.N. Roy a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.  

It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940. 

Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946. 

The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. 

The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389 of which 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces. 

The Interim Government of India was formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly. The Congress Party held a large majority in the Assembly (69 percent of the seats), and the Muslim League held nearly all the seats reserved in the Assembly for Muslims. There were also members of smaller parties, such as the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Communist Party of India and the Unionist Party.