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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DRAFTING COMMITTEE Uncategorized

DRAFTING COMMITTEE

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 

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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS GEOGRAPHY Uncategorized

INDIAN CITIES ON RIVERBANK

CITY RIVER STATE 
AGRA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
AHMEDABAD SABARMATI GUJRAT 
ALLAHABAD AT THE CONFLUENCE OF GANGA, YAMUNA AND SARASWATI  UTTAR PRADESH 
AYODHYA SARAYU UTTAR PRADESH 
BADRINATH ALAKANANDA UTTARAKHAND 
CUTTACK MAHANADI ODISHA 
BHAGALPUR GANGES BIHAR 
KOLKATA HOOGLY WEST BENGAL 
NEW DELHI YAMUNA DELHI 
DIBRUGARH BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
FEROZPUR SUTLEJ PUNJAB 
GUWAHATI BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
HARIDWAR GANGES UTTARAKHAND 
HYDERABAD MUSI TELUNGANA 
JABALPUR NARMADA MADHYA PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTER PRADESH 
KOTA CHAMBAL RAJASTHAN 
JAMMU TAWI JAMMU&KASHMIR 
PATNA GANGES BIHAR 
RAJMUNDRI GODAVARI ANDRA PRADESH 
SRINAGAR JHELUM JAMMU&KASHMIR 
SURAT TAPI GUJRAT 
VARANASI GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
VIJAYAWADA KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
VADODARA VISHWAMITRI GUJRAT 
MATHURA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
BANGALORE VRISHABHADRI KARNATAKA 
KANNAUJ GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
MANGALORE NETRAVATI KARNATAKA 
SHIMOGA TUNGA RIVER KARNATAKA 
BHADRAVATI BHADRA KARNATAKA 
GWALIOR CHAMBAL MADHYA PRADESH 
GORAKPUR RAPTI UTTAR PRADESH 
LUCKNOW GOMTI UTTAR PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
SMBALPUR MAHANADI ODISHA 
ROURKELA BRAHMANI ODISHA 
MADURAI VAIGAI  TAMIL NADU 
THIRUCHIRAPALLI KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
ERODE KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
TIRUNELVELI THAMIRA BARANI TAMIL NADU 
NASHIK GODAVARI MAHARASHTRA 
HAJIPUR GANGES BIHAR 
UJJAIN SHIPRA MADHYA PRADESH 
AMARAVATI KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
THANJAVUR VENNAARU TAMIL NADU 
Categories
ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION : cont.

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES (ARTICLES 51A) 

Initially, it had 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002. 

The fundamental duties noted in the constitution are as follows: 

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India — 

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; 
  1. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; 
  1. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 
  1. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; 
  1. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; 
  1. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; 
  1. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures; 
  1. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; 
  1. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence; 
  1. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; 
  1. Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years. 

ARTICLE 52 TO 151 

  • Article 52 – The President of India 
  • Article 53 – Executive Power of the union 
  • Article 54 – Election of President 
  • Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President 
  • Article 63 – The Vice–president of India 
  • Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States 
  • Article 66 – Election of Vice–president 
  • Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President 
  • Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President 
  • Article 76 – Attorney–General for India 
  • Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament 
  • Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha 
  • Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha 
  • Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament 
  • Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people 
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament 
  • Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills 
  • Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills” 
  • Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget 
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills 
  • Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament 
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court 
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges 
  • Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice 
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges 
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record 
  • Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court 
  • Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court 
  • Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts 
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India 
  • Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG 
  • Article 153 – Governors of State 
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor 
  • Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor 
  • Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State 
  • Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances 
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states 
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be court of record 
  • Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs 
  • Article 233 – Appointment of District judges 
  • Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts: 

  • Part I – States and union territories 
  • Part II – Citizenship 
  • Part III – Fundamental Rights 
  • Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy 
  • Part IVA – Fundamental Duties 
  • Part V   –   The Union 
  • Part VI   – The States 
  • Part VII   – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)     
  • Part VIII   – Union territories 
  • Part IX    – Panchayats   
  • Part IXA – Municipalities 
  • Part IXB – Co-operative societies 
  • Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas 
  • Part XI – Relations between the union and the states 
  • Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits 
  • Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India 
  • Part XIV – Services under the union and states 
  • Part XIV A – Tribunals 
  • Part XV – Elections 
  • Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes 
  • Part XVII – Languages 
  • Part XVIII – Emergency provisions 
  • Part XIX – Miscellaneous 
  • Part XX – Amending the constitution 
  • Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions 
  • Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals