The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the fundamental duties of citizens.
It is the longest written constitution in the world.
B.R Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is its chief architect.
It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly Of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950.
The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India.
India celebrates its constitution on 26 January 1950 as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a soverign,socialist,secular,democratic republic assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty and endeavours to promote fraternity.
The words “secular” and “socialist” were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency.
An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M.N. Roy a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.
It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940.
Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946.
The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies.
The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389 of which 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces.
The Interim Government of India was formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly. The Congress Party held a large majority in the Assembly (69 percent of the seats), and the Muslim League held nearly all the seats reserved in the Assembly for Muslims. There were also members of smaller parties, such as the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Communist Party of India and the Unionist Party.