Initially, it had 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002. 

The fundamental duties noted in the constitution are as follows: 

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India — 

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; 
  1. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; 
  1. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 
  1. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; 
  1. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; 
  1. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; 
  1. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures; 
  1. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; 
  1. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence; 
  1. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement; 
  1. Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years. 

ARTICLE 52 TO 151 

  • Article 52 – The President of India 
  • Article 53 – Executive Power of the union 
  • Article 54 – Election of President 
  • Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President 
  • Article 63 – The Vice–president of India 
  • Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States 
  • Article 66 – Election of Vice–president 
  • Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President 
  • Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President 
  • Article 76 – Attorney–General for India 
  • Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament 
  • Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha 
  • Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha 
  • Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament 
  • Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people 
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament 
  • Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills 
  • Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills” 
  • Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget 
  • Article 114 –Appropriation Bills 
  • Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament 
  • Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court 
  • Article 125 – Salaries of Judges 
  • Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice 
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges 
  • Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record 
  • Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court 
  • Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court 
  • Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court 
  • Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts 
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India 
  • Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG 
  • Article 153 – Governors of State 
  • Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor 
  • Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor 
  • Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State 
  • Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances 
  • Article 214 – High Courts for states 
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be court of record 
  • Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs 
  • Article 233 – Appointment of District judges 
  • Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts 

Timeline of formation of the Constitution of India

  • 6 December 1946: 

 Formation of the Constitution Assembly. 

  • 9 December 1946:  

The first meeting was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House). (207 members attended) 

The 1st person to address was J. B. Kripalani, Sachchidananda Sinha became temporary president.  

  • 11 December 1946:      

The Assembly appointed Rajendra Prasad as its president, H. C. Mukherjee as its vice-chairman and B. N. Rau as constitutional legal adviser. (There were initially 389 members in total, which declined to 299 after partition. Out of the 389 members, 292 were from government provinces, 4 from chief commissioner provinces and 93 from princely states.) 

  • 13 December 1946:         

An ‘Objective Resolution’ was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru. This later became the Preamble of the Constitution. 

  • 22 January 1947:    

Objective resolution unanimously adopted. 

  • 22 July 1947:  

National flag adopted. 

  • 15 August 1947:  

Achieved independence. India split into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. 

  • 29 August 1947:  

Drafting Committee appointed with B. R. Ambedkar as its Chairman. The other 6 members of committee were Munshi, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan and Mitter. 

  • 16 July 1948:  

Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly. 

  • 26 November 1949:  

The Constitution of India was passed and adopted by the assembly. 

  • 24 January 1950:  

Last meeting of Constituent Assembly. The Constitution was signed and accepted. (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, 22 Parts) 

  • 26 January 1950:  

The Constitution came into force. (The process took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days) 

G. V. Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament) after India turned into a republic.