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FACTS ABOUT INDIA STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

 STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions. 

State Capital Statehood 
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad (de jure), Amaravati (de facto)  01-Nov-56 
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 20-Feb-87 
Assam Dispur 26-Jan-50 
Bihar Patna 26-Jan-50 
Chhattisgarh Naya Raipur 01-Nov-00 
Goa Panaji 30-May-87 
Gujarat Gandhinagar 01-May-60 
Haryana Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Himachal Pradesh Shimla (Summer), Dharamshala (Winter) 25-Jan-71 
Jharkhand Ranchi 15-Nov-00 
Karnataka Bangalore 01-Nov-56 
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 01-Nov-56 
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 01-Nov-56 
Maharashtra Mumbai (Summer), Nagpur (Winter) 01-May-60 
Manipur Imphal 21-Jan-72 
Meghalaya Shillong 21-Jan-72 
Mizoram Aizawl 20-Feb-87 
Nagaland Kohima 01-Dec-63 
Odisha Bhubaneswar 26-Jan-50 
Punjab Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Rajasthan Jaipur 01-Nov-56 
Sikkim Gangtok 16-May-75 
Tamil Nadu Chennai 01-Nov-56 
Telangana Hyderabad 02-Jun-14 
Tripura Agartala 21-Jan-72 
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 26-Jan-50 
Uttarakhand Gairsain (Summer), Dehradun (Winter) 09-Nov-00 
West Bengal Kolkata 26-Jan-50 
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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DRAFTING COMMITTEE Uncategorized

DRAFTING COMMITTEE

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 

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ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Uncategorized

ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union. 
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state. 
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states. 
  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. 
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan. 
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship. 
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS( ARTICLE 12 TO 35) 

The constitution of India ORIGINALLY provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property under article 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.  Right to property become  a legal right now under article  300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution. 

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state. 
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. 
  • Article 14 – Equality before the law. 
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. 
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. 
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability. 
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles 

RIGHT TO FREEDOM (ARTICLE 19 TO 22) 

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:     
  1.  Right to freedom of speech and expression  
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms 
  3. Right to form associations or unions 
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India 
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India 
  6. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation,trade and business. 
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences. 
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty. 
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 
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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy. 

  • First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India’s states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change. 
  • Second Schedule – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the comptroller and auditor general. 
  • Third Schedule – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges. 
  • Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory. 
  • Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection). 
  • Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. 
  • Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities 
  • Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages 
  • Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations 
  • Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures. 
  • Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government) 
  • Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government) 

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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts: 

  • Part I – States and union territories 
  • Part II – Citizenship 
  • Part III – Fundamental Rights 
  • Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy 
  • Part IVA – Fundamental Duties 
  • Part V   –   The Union 
  • Part VI   – The States 
  • Part VII   – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)     
  • Part VIII   – Union territories 
  • Part IX    – Panchayats   
  • Part IXA – Municipalities 
  • Part IXB – Co-operative societies 
  • Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas 
  • Part XI – Relations between the union and the states 
  • Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits 
  • Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India 
  • Part XIV – Services under the union and states 
  • Part XIV A – Tribunals 
  • Part XV – Elections 
  • Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes 
  • Part XVII – Languages 
  • Part XVIII – Emergency provisions 
  • Part XIX – Miscellaneous 
  • Part XX – Amending the constitution 
  • Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions 
  • Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals 
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BORROWED CONCEPTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

BORROWED CONCEPTS

  1. UNITED KINGDOM 
  • Parliamentary government 
  • Concept of single citizenship 
  • Rule of law 
  • The legislative speaker and their role 
  • Legislative procedure 
  1. UNITED STATES 
  • Bill of Rights 
  • Federal structure of government 
  • Electoral College 
  • Independent judiciary and separation of powers 
  • Judicial review 
  • President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces 
  • Equal protection under law 
  1. IRELAND 

Directive principles of state policy 

  1. AUSTRALIA 
  • Freedom of trade between states 
  • National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction 
  • Concurrent List 
  • Preamble terminology 
  1. FRANCE 

Ideals of Liberty ,equality and fraternity 

  1. CANADA 
  • Quasi-federal government — a federal system with a strong central government 
  • Distribution of powers between the central and state governments 
  • Residual powers, retained by the central government 

7. SOVIET UNION

  • Fundamental Duties under article 51-A 
  • Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development 

8. Other constitutions 

  • The emergency provision under article 356 (from the  Wiemar Constitution) 
  • Amending the constitution (from South Africa) 
  • Due process (from  Japan)