Chalcolithic or Eneolithic period marks the use of the metals among which the Copper was first.

Chalcolithic means use of copper and stone.

Copper was probably the first metal used by humans and the period of Copper Age was from 1800-800 BC.

Thus, chalcolithic period was transition between Stone Age and metal age.

This was the period in which stone tools were losing their significance and copper tools were finding grounds. 

The earliest settlements belonging to the Chalcolithic Phase are extended from the Chhotanagpur plateau to the copper Gangetic basin.

Some sites are found at Brahmagiri near Mysore and Navada Toli on the Narmada. 

The people of the Chalcolithic age subsisted on farming and hunting-fishing.

Cattle, sheep, goat buffalo and pig were reared. Thereafter, they were killed for food.

Crops like barley and wheat were cultivated. Other crops that were cultivated are bajra, jowar, millets, ragi, green peas, lentil, green gram and black gram.

Hunting was one of the important occupations. 

Wheel- made fine pottery is considered as the specialty of the Chalcolithic culture. Most of these used to be of red and orange color. 

The presence of painted pottery is a hall mark of the Chalcolithic period

The burial practice was another striking feature and the dead were buried in a particular direction all over a particular area.

Some important Chalcolithic cultures of India are as follows: 


The sites of Ahar-Banas Culture were Aahar, balathal, Gilund etc in the vicinity of Banas river in Rajasthan. The distinctive feature is black and red ware. 


Located in Rajasthan near Chambal and its tributaries, the sturdy red slipped ware with chocolate designs is main feature. 


Narmada & its tributaries in Gujarat. One of the largest Chalcolithic settlements. The largest site of the Chalcolithic period is Diamabad situated on the left bank of the Pravara River. Major sites of Malwa Cultureinclude Daimabad, Inamgaon, Kayatha, Nagda, Vidisha, Eran, Mandsaur, and Navdatoli (near Maheshwar). A massive fortification wall and a moat have been discovered at Eran. 


The well-known sites are in Dhulia district of Maharashtra. 


Both of them are derived from the Harappa culture. The polished red ware is the hall mark of this culture. 


Jorwe is a village and an archaeological site located on the banks of the Godavari River in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. This site was first was excavated in 1950-51 under the direction of Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia and Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo. 

Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture (ca. 1300–700 BCE) have been discovered throughout Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and other states.  The key features of this culture include red pottery, generally with matt surface bearing paintings in black. 



The Stone Age is the first period in the three-age system of archaeology, which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: 

  • The Stone Age 
  • The Bronze Age 
  • The Iron Age 

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. 

The major subdivisions of the Three-age Stone Age cross two epoch boundaries on the geologic time scale: 

  • The Paleolithic period of archaeology 
  • Mesolithic or Epipaleolithic period of archaeology 
  • Neolithic period of archaeology 

The Paleolithic also called the Old Stone Age, the term “Palaeolithic” was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865 ; palaios, “old”; and  lithos, “stone”, meaning “old age of the stone” or “Old Stone Age”. 

At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period (about 2,500,000 to 200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. 

Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood.  , The early paleolithic hominins,  Australopithecus, were the first users of stone tools. 

Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use. 

Lower Paleolithic humans constructed shelters, such as the possible wood hut at Terra Amata. 

Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster 

However, the use of fire only became common in the societies of the following Middle Stone Age and Middle Paleolithic. 

Use of fire reduced mortality rates and provided protection against predators. 

Early hominins may have begun to cook their food as early as the Lower Paleolithic (c. 1.9 million years ago) or at the latest in the early Middle Paleolithic (c. 250,000 years ago). 

The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts to travel over large bodies of water, which may have allowed a group of Homo erectus to reach the island of Flores and evolve into the small hominin Homo floresiensis. 

Middle Paleolithic stone tool manufacturing spawned a tool making technique known as the prepared-core technique, that was more elaborate than previous Acheulean techniques. 

This technique increased efficiency by allowing the creation of more controlled and consistent flakes. It allowed Middle Paleolithic humans to create stone tipped spears, which were the earliest composite tools, by hafting sharp, pointy stone flakes onto wooden shafts. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources. 

Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic ; the invention of these devices brought fish into the human diets, which provided a hedge against starvation and a more abundant food supply. 

Paleolithic groups such as the Neanderthals—who had a Middle Paleolithic level of technology—appear to have hunted large game just as well as Upper Paleolithic modern humans. and the Neanderthals in particular may have likewise hunted with projectile weapons. 

During the Upper Paleolithic, further inventions were made such as the net ,bolas, the spear thrower , the bow and arrow, Early dogs were domesticated. Upper Paleolithic cultures were probably able to time the migration of game animals such as wild horses and deer. 

Two main forms of Paleolithic art are known to modern scholars: small sculptures; and monumental paintings, incised designs, and reliefs on the walls of caves. 

Among the bone and ivory carvings dating to the Paleolithic are several examples of partial bone or ivory flutes, including one with five finger holes, found at Hohle Fels Cave, near Ulm, Germany, and dated to about 35,000 years ago. 




India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions. 

State Capital Statehood 
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad (de jure), Amaravati (de facto)  01-Nov-56 
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 20-Feb-87 
Assam Dispur 26-Jan-50 
Bihar Patna 26-Jan-50 
Chhattisgarh Naya Raipur 01-Nov-00 
Goa Panaji 30-May-87 
Gujarat Gandhinagar 01-May-60 
Haryana Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Himachal Pradesh Shimla (Summer), Dharamshala (Winter) 25-Jan-71 
Jharkhand Ranchi 15-Nov-00 
Karnataka Bangalore 01-Nov-56 
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 01-Nov-56 
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 01-Nov-56 
Maharashtra Mumbai (Summer), Nagpur (Winter) 01-May-60 
Manipur Imphal 21-Jan-72 
Meghalaya Shillong 21-Jan-72 
Mizoram Aizawl 20-Feb-87 
Nagaland Kohima 01-Dec-63 
Odisha Bhubaneswar 26-Jan-50 
Punjab Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Rajasthan Jaipur 01-Nov-56 
Sikkim Gangtok 16-May-75 
Tamil Nadu Chennai 01-Nov-56 
Telangana Hyderabad 02-Jun-14 
Tripura Agartala 21-Jan-72 
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 26-Jan-50 
Uttarakhand Gairsain (Summer), Dehradun (Winter) 09-Nov-00 
West Bengal Kolkata 26-Jan-50 


The Constituent Assembly appointed a total of 22 committees to deal with different tasks of constitution-making. Out of these, eight were major committees and the others were minor committees. 


  1. Drafting Committee – B. R. Ambedkar 
  1. Union Power Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Union Constitution Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Provincial Constitution Committee – Vallabhbhai Patel 
  1. Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas – Vallabhbhai Patel. This committee had the following subcommittees: 
  • Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee – J. B. Kripalani 
  • Minorities Sub-Committee – Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, 
  • North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee – Gopinath Bordoloi 
  • Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee – A V Thakkar 
  1. Rules of Procedure Committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States) – Jawaharlal Nehru 
  1. Steering Committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. National flag ad hoc committee – Rajendra Prasad 
  1. Committee for the function of the consistution assembley – G V Mavlankar 
  1. House committee – B Pattabhi Sitaramayya 
  1. Language committee – Moturi Satyanarayana 
  1. Order of business committee – K M Munshi 


Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha was the first chairman (temporary) of Constituent Assembly. Later Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president and Its vice-president was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee. Jurist B. N. Rau was appointed constitutional adviser to the assembly; Rau prepared the original draft of the constitution. 

The assembly’s work had five stages: 

  • Committees presented reports on issues. 
  • B.N. Rau prepared an initial draft based on the reports and his research into the constitutions of other nations. 
  • The drafting committee, chaired by B. R. Ambedkar, presented a detailed draft constitution which was published for public discussion. 
  • The draft constitution was discussed, and amendments proposed and enacted. 
  • The constitution was adopted, with a committee of experts led by the Congress Party (known as the Congress Assembly Party) played a pivotal role. 



Timeline of formation of the Constitution of India

  • 6 December 1946: 

 Formation of the Constitution Assembly. 

  • 9 December 1946:  

The first meeting was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House). (207 members attended) 

The 1st person to address was J. B. Kripalani, Sachchidananda Sinha became temporary president.  

  • 11 December 1946:      

The Assembly appointed Rajendra Prasad as its president, H. C. Mukherjee as its vice-chairman and B. N. Rau as constitutional legal adviser. (There were initially 389 members in total, which declined to 299 after partition. Out of the 389 members, 292 were from government provinces, 4 from chief commissioner provinces and 93 from princely states.) 

  • 13 December 1946:         

An ‘Objective Resolution’ was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru. This later became the Preamble of the Constitution. 

  • 22 January 1947:    

Objective resolution unanimously adopted. 

  • 22 July 1947:  

National flag adopted. 

  • 15 August 1947:  

Achieved independence. India split into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. 

  • 29 August 1947:  

Drafting Committee appointed with B. R. Ambedkar as its Chairman. The other 6 members of committee were Munshi, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan and Mitter. 

  • 16 July 1948:  

Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly. 

  • 26 November 1949:  

The Constitution of India was passed and adopted by the assembly. 

  • 24 January 1950:  

Last meeting of Constituent Assembly. The Constitution was signed and accepted. (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, 22 Parts) 

  • 26 January 1950:  

The Constitution came into force. (The process took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days) 

G. V. Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament) after India turned into a republic. 




The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. 

The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the fundamental duties of citizens.  

It is the longest written constitution in the world. 

B.R Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is  its chief architect. 

It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly Of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. 

The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. 

India celebrates its constitution on 26 January 1950 as Republic Day. 

The constitution declares India a soverign,socialist,secular,democratic republic assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty and endeavours to promote fraternity.

The words “secular” and “socialist” were added to the preamble in 1976 during the emergency.


An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M.N. Roy a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.  

It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940. 

Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946. 

The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies. 

The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389 of which 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces. 

The Interim Government of India was formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly. The Congress Party held a large majority in the Assembly (69 percent of the seats), and the Muslim League held nearly all the seats reserved in the Assembly for Muslims. There were also members of smaller parties, such as the Scheduled Caste Federation, the Communist Party of India and the Unionist Party.