Categories
ANCIENT HISTORY HISTORY

CHALCOLITHIC AGE

Chalcolithic or Eneolithic period marks the use of the metals among which the Copper was first.

Chalcolithic means use of copper and stone.

Copper was probably the first metal used by humans and the period of Copper Age was from 1800-800 BC.

Thus, chalcolithic period was transition between Stone Age and metal age.

This was the period in which stone tools were losing their significance and copper tools were finding grounds. 

The earliest settlements belonging to the Chalcolithic Phase are extended from the Chhotanagpur plateau to the copper Gangetic basin.

Some sites are found at Brahmagiri near Mysore and Navada Toli on the Narmada. 

The people of the Chalcolithic age subsisted on farming and hunting-fishing.

Cattle, sheep, goat buffalo and pig were reared. Thereafter, they were killed for food.

Crops like barley and wheat were cultivated. Other crops that were cultivated are bajra, jowar, millets, ragi, green peas, lentil, green gram and black gram.

Hunting was one of the important occupations. 

Wheel- made fine pottery is considered as the specialty of the Chalcolithic culture. Most of these used to be of red and orange color. 

The presence of painted pottery is a hall mark of the Chalcolithic period

The burial practice was another striking feature and the dead were buried in a particular direction all over a particular area.

Some important Chalcolithic cultures of India are as follows: 

  1. AHARA-BANAS CULTURE

The sites of Ahar-Banas Culture were Aahar, balathal, Gilund etc in the vicinity of Banas river in Rajasthan. The distinctive feature is black and red ware. 

2. KAYATHA CULTURE

Located in Rajasthan near Chambal and its tributaries, the sturdy red slipped ware with chocolate designs is main feature. 

3. MALWA CULTURE 

Narmada & its tributaries in Gujarat. One of the largest Chalcolithic settlements. The largest site of the Chalcolithic period is Diamabad situated on the left bank of the Pravara River. Major sites of Malwa Cultureinclude Daimabad, Inamgaon, Kayatha, Nagda, Vidisha, Eran, Mandsaur, and Navdatoli (near Maheshwar). A massive fortification wall and a moat have been discovered at Eran. 

4. SVALDA CULTURE

The well-known sites are in Dhulia district of Maharashtra. 

5. PRABHAS & RANGPUR CULTURE

Both of them are derived from the Harappa culture. The polished red ware is the hall mark of this culture. 

6. JORWE CULTURE

Jorwe is a village and an archaeological site located on the banks of the Godavari River in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. This site was first was excavated in 1950-51 under the direction of Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia and Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo. 

Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture (ca. 1300–700 BCE) have been discovered throughout Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and other states.  The key features of this culture include red pottery, generally with matt surface bearing paintings in black. 

Categories
ANCIENT HISTORY HISTORY

STONE AGE

The Stone Age is the first period in the three-age system of archaeology, which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: 

  • The Stone Age 
  • The Bronze Age 
  • The Iron Age 

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. 

The major subdivisions of the Three-age Stone Age cross two epoch boundaries on the geologic time scale: 

  • The Paleolithic period of archaeology 
  • Mesolithic or Epipaleolithic period of archaeology 
  • Neolithic period of archaeology 

The Paleolithic also called the Old Stone Age, the term “Palaeolithic” was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865 ; palaios, “old”; and  lithos, “stone”, meaning “old age of the stone” or “Old Stone Age”. 

At sites dating from the Lower Paleolithic Period (about 2,500,000 to 200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools have been found in association with the remains of what may have been the earliest human ancestors. 

Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood.  , The early paleolithic hominins,  Australopithecus, were the first users of stone tools. 

Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use. 

Lower Paleolithic humans constructed shelters, such as the possible wood hut at Terra Amata. 

Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster 

However, the use of fire only became common in the societies of the following Middle Stone Age and Middle Paleolithic. 

Use of fire reduced mortality rates and provided protection against predators. 

Early hominins may have begun to cook their food as early as the Lower Paleolithic (c. 1.9 million years ago) or at the latest in the early Middle Paleolithic (c. 250,000 years ago). 

The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts to travel over large bodies of water, which may have allowed a group of Homo erectus to reach the island of Flores and evolve into the small hominin Homo floresiensis. 

Middle Paleolithic stone tool manufacturing spawned a tool making technique known as the prepared-core technique, that was more elaborate than previous Acheulean techniques. 

This technique increased efficiency by allowing the creation of more controlled and consistent flakes. It allowed Middle Paleolithic humans to create stone tipped spears, which were the earliest composite tools, by hafting sharp, pointy stone flakes onto wooden shafts. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources. 

Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic ; the invention of these devices brought fish into the human diets, which provided a hedge against starvation and a more abundant food supply. 

Paleolithic groups such as the Neanderthals—who had a Middle Paleolithic level of technology—appear to have hunted large game just as well as Upper Paleolithic modern humans. and the Neanderthals in particular may have likewise hunted with projectile weapons. 

During the Upper Paleolithic, further inventions were made such as the net ,bolas, the spear thrower , the bow and arrow, Early dogs were domesticated. Upper Paleolithic cultures were probably able to time the migration of game animals such as wild horses and deer. 

Two main forms of Paleolithic art are known to modern scholars: small sculptures; and monumental paintings, incised designs, and reliefs on the walls of caves. 

Among the bone and ivory carvings dating to the Paleolithic are several examples of partial bone or ivory flutes, including one with five finger holes, found at Hohle Fels Cave, near Ulm, Germany, and dated to about 35,000 years ago. 

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FACTS ABOUT INDIA STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

 STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES OF INDIA

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions. 

State Capital Statehood 
Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad (de jure), Amaravati (de facto)  01-Nov-56 
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar 20-Feb-87 
Assam Dispur 26-Jan-50 
Bihar Patna 26-Jan-50 
Chhattisgarh Naya Raipur 01-Nov-00 
Goa Panaji 30-May-87 
Gujarat Gandhinagar 01-May-60 
Haryana Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Himachal Pradesh Shimla (Summer), Dharamshala (Winter) 25-Jan-71 
Jharkhand Ranchi 15-Nov-00 
Karnataka Bangalore 01-Nov-56 
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram 01-Nov-56 
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal 01-Nov-56 
Maharashtra Mumbai (Summer), Nagpur (Winter) 01-May-60 
Manipur Imphal 21-Jan-72 
Meghalaya Shillong 21-Jan-72 
Mizoram Aizawl 20-Feb-87 
Nagaland Kohima 01-Dec-63 
Odisha Bhubaneswar 26-Jan-50 
Punjab Chandigarh 01-Nov-66 
Rajasthan Jaipur 01-Nov-56 
Sikkim Gangtok 16-May-75 
Tamil Nadu Chennai 01-Nov-56 
Telangana Hyderabad 02-Jun-14 
Tripura Agartala 21-Jan-72 
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow 26-Jan-50 
Uttarakhand Gairsain (Summer), Dehradun (Winter) 09-Nov-00 
West Bengal Kolkata 26-Jan-50 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA DRAFTING COMMITTEE Uncategorized

DRAFTING COMMITTEE

Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly’s constitutional adviser in 1946. 

At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly, committees were proposed. On 29 August, 1947, the Constituent Assembly set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution for India. Rau’s draft was considered, debated and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, which was appointed on 29 August 1947 with B. R. Ambedkar as chair. 

The Drafting Committee had seven members: 

1.Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar,

2. N. Gopalaswami

3. B.R. Ambedkar,

4. K.M Munshi,

5.Mohammad Saadulla,

6.B.L. Mitter and

7.D.P. Khaitan.

At its first meeting on 30th August 1947, the Drafting Committee elected B.R Ambedkar as its Chairman. 

A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.  The constituent assembly took 2 years , 11 months and 17 days to frame the constitution. On 26 Nov 1949 Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. here were 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules. 

The constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. 

Categories
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS GEOGRAPHY Uncategorized

INDIAN CITIES ON RIVERBANK

CITY RIVER STATE 
AGRA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
AHMEDABAD SABARMATI GUJRAT 
ALLAHABAD AT THE CONFLUENCE OF GANGA, YAMUNA AND SARASWATI  UTTAR PRADESH 
AYODHYA SARAYU UTTAR PRADESH 
BADRINATH ALAKANANDA UTTARAKHAND 
CUTTACK MAHANADI ODISHA 
BHAGALPUR GANGES BIHAR 
KOLKATA HOOGLY WEST BENGAL 
NEW DELHI YAMUNA DELHI 
DIBRUGARH BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
FEROZPUR SUTLEJ PUNJAB 
GUWAHATI BRAHMAPUTRA ASSAM 
HARIDWAR GANGES UTTARAKHAND 
HYDERABAD MUSI TELUNGANA 
JABALPUR NARMADA MADHYA PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTER PRADESH 
KOTA CHAMBAL RAJASTHAN 
JAMMU TAWI JAMMU&KASHMIR 
PATNA GANGES BIHAR 
RAJMUNDRI GODAVARI ANDRA PRADESH 
SRINAGAR JHELUM JAMMU&KASHMIR 
SURAT TAPI GUJRAT 
VARANASI GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
VIJAYAWADA KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
VADODARA VISHWAMITRI GUJRAT 
MATHURA YAMUNA UTTAR PRADESH 
BANGALORE VRISHABHADRI KARNATAKA 
KANNAUJ GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
MANGALORE NETRAVATI KARNATAKA 
SHIMOGA TUNGA RIVER KARNATAKA 
BHADRAVATI BHADRA KARNATAKA 
GWALIOR CHAMBAL MADHYA PRADESH 
GORAKPUR RAPTI UTTAR PRADESH 
LUCKNOW GOMTI UTTAR PRADESH 
KANPUR GANGES UTTAR PRADESH 
SMBALPUR MAHANADI ODISHA 
ROURKELA BRAHMANI ODISHA 
MADURAI VAIGAI  TAMIL NADU 
THIRUCHIRAPALLI KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
ERODE KAVERI TAMIL NADU 
TIRUNELVELI THAMIRA BARANI TAMIL NADU 
NASHIK GODAVARI MAHARASHTRA 
HAJIPUR GANGES BIHAR 
UJJAIN SHIPRA MADHYA PRADESH 
AMARAVATI KRISHNA ANDRA PRADESH 
THANJAVUR VENNAARU TAMIL NADU 
Categories
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT AFFAIRS GEOGRAPHY Uncategorized

LIST OF COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND THEIR CURRENCIES

COUNTRY CAPITAL CURRENCY 
Afghanistan Kabul Afghani 
Albania Tirane Lek 
Algeria Algiers Dinar 
Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro 
Angola Luanda New Kwanza 
Antigua and Barbuda Saint John’s East Caribbean dollar 
Argentina Buenos Aires Peso 
Armenia Yerevan Dram 
Australia Canberra Australian dollar 
Austria Vienna Euro  
Azerbaijan Baku Manat 
The Bahamas Nassau Bahamian dollar 
Bahrain Manama Bahrain dinar 
Bangladesh Dhaka Taka 
Barbados Bridgetown Barbados dollar 
Belarus Minsk Belorussian ruble 
Belgium Brussels Euro  
Belize Belmopan Belize dollar 
Benin Porto-Novo CFA Franc 
Bhutan Thimphu Ngultrum 
Bolivia La Paz (administrative); Sucre (judicial) Boliviano 
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Marka 
Botswana Gaborone Pula 
Brazil Brasilia Real 
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar 
Bulgaria Sofia Lev 
Burkina Faso Ouagadougou CFA Franc 
Burundi Bujumbura Burundi franc 
Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel 
Cameroon Yaounde CFA Franc 
Canada Ottawa Canadian dollar 
Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean escudo 
Central African Republic Bangui CFA Franc 
Chad N’Djamena CFA Franc 
Chile Santiago Chilean Peso 
China Beijing Yuan/Renminbi 
Colombia Bogota Colombian Peso 
Comoros Moroni Franc 
Congo, Republic of the Brazzaville CFA Franc 
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Kinshasa Congolese franc 
Costa Rica San Jose Colón 
Cote d’Ivoire Yamoussoukro (official); Abidjan (de facto) CFA Franc 
Croatia Zagreb Kuna 
Cuba Havana Cuban Peso 
Cyprus Nicosia Cyprus pound 
Czech Republic Prague Koruna 
Denmark Copenhagen Krone 
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti franc 
Dominica Roseau East Caribbean dollar 
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Dominican Peso 
East Timor  Dili U.S. dollar 
Ecuador Quito U.S. dollar 
Egypt Cairo Egyptian pound 
El Salvador San Salvador Colón; U.S. dollar 
Equatorial Guinea Malabo CFA Franc 
Eritrea Asmara Nakfa 
Estonia Tallinn Kroon 
Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr 
Fiji Suva Fiji dollar 
Finland Helsinki Euro  
France Paris Euro  
Gabon Libreville CFA Franc 
The Gambia Banjul Dalasi 
Georgia Tbilisi Lari 
Germany Berlin Euro  
Ghana Accra Cedi 
Greece Athens Euro  
Grenada Saint George’s East Caribbean dollar 
Guatemala Guatemala City Quetzal 
Guinea Conakry Guinean franc 
Guinea-Bissau Bissau CFA Franc 
Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar 
Haiti Port-au-Prince Gourde 
Honduras Tegucigalpa Lempira 
Hungary Budapest Forint 
Iceland Reykjavik Icelandic króna 
India New Delhi Rupee 
Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah 
Iran Tehran Rial 
Iraq Baghdad Iraqi Dinar 
Ireland Dublin Euro 
Israel Jerusalem Shekel 
Italy Rome Euro  
Jamaica Kingston Jamaican dollar 
Japan Tokyo Yen 
Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar 
Kazakhstan Nursultan Tenge 
Kenya Nairobi Kenya shilling 
Kiribati Tarawa Atoll Australian dollar 
Korea, North Pyongyang Won 
Korea, South Seoul Won 
Kosovo Pristina Euro  
Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar 
Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som 
Laos Vientiane New Kip 
Latvia Riga Lats 
Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound 
Lesotho Maseru Maluti 
Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar 
Libya Tripoli Libyan dinar 
Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc 
Lithuania Vilnius Litas 
Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro  
Macedonia Skopje Denar 
Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy franc 
Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha 
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Ringgit 
Maldives Male Rufiya 
Mali Bamako CFA Franc 
Malta Valletta Maltese lira 
Marshall Islands Majuro U.S. Dollar 
Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya 
Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee 
Mexico Mexico City Mexican peso 
Micronesia, Federated States of Palikir U.S. Dollar 
Moldova Chisinau Leu 
Monaco Monaco Euro 
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tugrik 
Montenegro Podgorica Euro 
Morocco Rabat Dirham 
Mozambique Maputo Metical 
Myanmar (Burma) Rangoon ; Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (administrative) Kyat 
Categories
ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Uncategorized

ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

THE MOST IMPORTANT ARTICLES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION 

  • Article 1 – Name and territory of the union. 
  • Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state. 
  • Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states. 
  • Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. 
  • Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan. 
  • Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship. 
  • Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS( ARTICLE 12 TO 35) 

The constitution of India ORIGINALLY provided 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only 6. The Right to property under article 31 was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978.  Right to property become  a legal right now under article  300–A was made and included in Part XII of the constitution. 

  • Article 12 – Definition of the state. 
  • Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. 
  • Article 14 – Equality before the law. 
  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. 
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. 
  • Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability. 
  • Article 18 – Abolition of titles 

RIGHT TO FREEDOM (ARTICLE 19 TO 22) 

  • Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:     
  1.  Right to freedom of speech and expression  
  2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms 
  3. Right to form associations or unions 
  4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India 
  5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India 
  6. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation,trade and business. 
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences. 
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty. 
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

SCHEDULES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy. 

  • First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India’s states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change. 
  • Second Schedule – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the comptroller and auditor general. 
  • Third Schedule – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges. 
  • Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory. 
  • Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection). 
  • Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. 
  • Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities 
  • Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages 
  • Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations 
  • Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures. 
  • Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government) 
  • Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government) 

Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

PARTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts: 

  • Part I – States and union territories 
  • Part II – Citizenship 
  • Part III – Fundamental Rights 
  • Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy 
  • Part IVA – Fundamental Duties 
  • Part V   –   The Union 
  • Part VI   – The States 
  • Part VII   – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)     
  • Part VIII   – Union territories 
  • Part IX    – Panchayats   
  • Part IXA – Municipalities 
  • Part IXB – Co-operative societies 
  • Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas 
  • Part XI – Relations between the union and the states 
  • Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits 
  • Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India 
  • Part XIV – Services under the union and states 
  • Part XIV A – Tribunals 
  • Part XV – Elections 
  • Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes 
  • Part XVII – Languages 
  • Part XVIII – Emergency provisions 
  • Part XIX – Miscellaneous 
  • Part XX – Amending the constitution 
  • Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions 
  • Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals 
Categories
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA structure of indian constitution

STRUCTURE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation. At its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is the second largest active constitution in the world. (largest active constitution- constitution of Alabama). 

The constitution has a preamble and 448 articles, 25 parts and 12 schedules and 5 appendices, it has been amended  103 times; the latest amendment became effective on 14 January 2019.